Colonial Consequences: Essays in Irish Literature and Culture
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It was in the mid-eighteenth century that ancient Greece became a source of admiration among the French and British. This enthusiasm gained prominence in the late-eighteenth century. These scholars and poets regarded ancient Greece as the matrix of Western civilization and a model of beauty and democracy. In the nineteenth century when Europe began to expand across the globe and establish colonies, ancient Greece and Rome were used as a source of empowerment and justification to Western civilizing mission. At this period, many French and British imperial ideologues identified strongly with the ancient empires and invoked ancient Greece and Rome to justify the colonial civilizing project.
He advised the French colonists in Algeria to follow the ancient imperial example. The Romans established in almost all parts of the globe known to them municipalities which were no more than miniature Romes.
John Wilson Foster - Books
Among modern colonizers, the English did the same. Who can prevent us from emulating these European peoples? The incorporation of ancient concepts and racial and cultural assumptions into modern imperial ideology bolstered colonial claims to supremacy and right to colonize non-Europeans. As a literary theory , postcolonialism deals with the literatures produced by the peoples who once were colonies of the European imperial powers e. Britain, France, and Spain and the literatures of the decolonized countries engaged in contemporary, postcolonial arrangements e. Organisation internationale de la Francophonie and the Commonwealth of Nations with their former mother countries.
In Dutch literature, the Indies Literature includes the colonial and postcolonial genres, which examine and analyze the formation of a postcolonial identity, and the postcolonial culture produced by the diaspora of the Indo-European peoples, the Eurasian folk who originated from Indonesia; the peoples who were the colony of the Dutch East Indies ; in the literature, the notable author is Tjalie Robinson. M Coetzee 's Waiting for the Barbarians depicts the unfair and inhuman situation of people dominated by settlers.
To perpetuate and facilitate control of the colonial enterprise, some colonized people, especially from among the subaltern peoples of the British Empire, were sent to attend university in the Imperial Motherland; they were to become the native-born, but Europeanised, ruling class of colonial satraps. Yet, after decolonization, their bicultural educations originated postcolonial criticism of empire and colonialism, and of the representations of the colonist and the colonized.
In the late twentieth century, after the dissolution of the USSR , the constituent soviet socialist republics became the literary subjects of postcolonial criticism, wherein the writers dealt with the legacies cultural, social, economic of the Russification of their peoples, countries, and cultures in service to Greater Russia. Postcolonial literary study is in two categories: i that of the postcolonial nations, and ii that of the nations who continue forging a postcolonial national identity.
The first category of literature presents and analyzes the internal challenges inherent to determining an ethnic identity in a decolonized nation. The second category of literature presents and analyzes the degeneration of civic and nationalist unities consequent to ethnic parochialism, usually manifested as the demagoguery of "protecting the nation", a variant of the Us-and-Them binary social relation.
Regarding sociolinguistic interpretations of literary texts through postcolonial lenses we may refer to Jaydeep Sarangi's book, "Indian Novels in English: A Sociolinguistic Study" As such, the fragmented national identity remains a characteristic of such societies, consequence of the imperially convenient, but arbitrary, colonial boundaries geographic and cultural demarcated by the Europeans, with which they ignored the tribal and clan relations that determined the geographic borders of the Middle East countries, before the arrival of European imperialists. Most countries of the Middle East, suffered from the fundamental problems over their national identities.
More than three-quarters of a century after the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, from which most of them emerged, these states have been unable to define, project, and maintain a national identity that is both inclusive and representative. Independence and the end of colonialism did not end social fragmentation and war civil and international in the Middle East. In the event, "in places like Iraq and Jordan, leaders of the new sovereign states were brought in from the outside, [and] tailored to suit colonial interests and commitments.
Likewise, most states in the Persian Gulf were handed over to those [Europeanised colonial subjects] who could protect and safeguard imperial interests in the post-withdrawal phase. In the late 19th century, the Scramble for Africa — proved to be the tail end of mercantilist colonialism of the European imperial powers, yet, for the Africans, the consequences were greater than elsewhere in the colonized non—Western world.
To facilitate the colonization the European empires laid railroads where the rivers and the land proved impassable. The Imperial British railroad effort proved overambitious in the effort of traversing continental Africa, yet succeeded only in connecting colonial North Africa Cairo with the colonial south of Africa Cape Town. Upon arriving to Africa, the Europeans encountered the native African civilizations of the Ashanti Empire , the Benin Empire , the Kingdom of Dahomey , the Buganda Kingdom Uganda , and the Kingdom of Kongo , all of which were annexed by imperial powers under the belief that they required European stewardship, as proposed and justified in the essay "The African Character" , by G.
Hegel , in keeping with his philosophic opinion that cultures were stages in the course of the historical unfolding of The Absolute. See: Things Fall Apart , In postcolonial countries of Africa, the Africans and the non—Africans live in a world of genders, ethnicities, classes and languages, of ages, families, professions, religions and nations.
There is a suggestion that individualism and postcolonialism are essentially discontinuous and divergent cultural phenomena. Cochinchina southern Vietnam was the first territory under French Control.
Irish Literature as Colonial Literature: Exploring Narratives of Transnational Identity
Saigon was conquered in Then, in , the Indochinese Union Union indochinoise was established. Trinh T. Minh-ha has been developing her innovative theories about postcolonialism in various means of expression, literature, films, and teaching. She is best known for her film "Reassemblage", made in , in which she tried to deconstruct anthropology, as a "western male hegemonic ideology".
In she wrote "Woman, Native, Other: Writing Postcoloniality and Feminism", where she focuses on the acknowledgement of oral tradition. Structural adjustment programmes SAPs implemented by the World Bank and IMF are viewed by some postcolonialists as the modern procedure of colonization. Structural adjustment programmes SAPs calls for trade liberalization, privatization of banks, health care, and educational institutions. Limited to production and exportation of cash crops, many African nations acquired more debt, and were left stranded in a position where acquiring more loan and continuing to pay high interest became an endless cycle.
Osterhammel's The Dictionary of Human Geography uses the definition of colonialism as "enduring relationship of domination and mode of dispossession, usually or at least initially between an indigenous or enslaved majority and a minority of interlopers colonizers , who are convinced of their own superiority, pursue their own interests, and exercise power through a mixture of coercion, persuasion, conflict and collaboration".
Developing on Aijaz Ahmad 's earlier critique of Said's Orientalism  and Sumit Sarkar's critique of the Subaltern Studies scholars  Chibber focuses on and refutes the principal historical claims made by the Subaltern Studies scholars, claims which are representative of the whole of postcolonial theory. Postcolonial theory, he argues, essentializes cultures, painting them as fixed and static categories.
Moreover, it presents the difference between East and West as unbridgeable, hence denying people's "universal aspirations" and "universal interests". He also criticized the postcolonial tendency to characterize all of Enlightenment values as Eurocentric.
According to him, the theory will be remembered "for its revival of cultural essentialism and its acting as an endorsement of orientalism , rather than being an antidote to it. The concentration of postcolonial studies upon the subject of national identity has determined it is essential to the creation and establishment of a stable nation and country in the aftermath of decolonization; yet indicates that either an indeterminate or an ambiguous national identity has tended to limit the social, cultural, and economic progress of a decolonized people.
Nevertheless, Kumaraswamy and Sadiki said that such a common sociological problem—that of an indeterminate national identity—among the countries of the Middle East is an important aspect that must be accounted in order to have an understanding of the politics of the contemporary Middle East.
In an effort to understand postcolonialism through scholarship and technology, in addition to important literature, many stakeholders have published projects about the subject. Here is an incomplete list of projects.
- The Woman Who Rode Away And Other Stories.
- Books & Publications;
- Other Subject Areas?
- Christmas Storm.
- Additional information.
- Dont Look Before You Leap?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism. Geographies of Postcolonialism. SAGE Publications. November—December Against the Current. Beginning Postcolonialism. Archived from the original on Retrieved CS1 maint: Archived copy as title link.
Indianapolis: Hacket Publishing Company. The Hindu. Blackwell Pub. Rethinking Postcolonialism. London: Palgrave Macmillan. This was a desperate seeking of new identities. Foster quotes Jack E.
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Reese on Breton ethnic minority nationalism to explain his sense of those mostly Protestant Irish intellectuals faced with the collapse of the old order and the growth of a middle class challenging their interests: [TJhese intellectuals may extricate themselves from their dangerous situation by following either of two courses of action. They may seek affiliation with one of the various groups that are struggling to dominate the emergent social order or, through scrutiny of their social moorings, they may seek to rise above their particular class interests and forge a new mission for themselves as the detached guardians of the moral and material objectives of the people as a whole.
The Revivalists employed the tropes of change reincarnation, transfiguration , transcendentalism in the forging of new identities for themselves. Foster links their anti-modern Revivalism and cultural nationalism to their political predicament. Reheated Blakean philosophy, romantic folklorism , nostalgia, utopianism, and primitivism contributed to that entropion which revealed news of the invisible world. The 'geography of revival delusion,' as Foster calls Revival Dublin headquarters and its field laboratory in the Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.