Skinless: A Novel in III Parts (Part I)
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Repeat deglazing with second can of sauce. Cover, and seal the meat dish with foil. Bake in a preheated degree oven for 40 min. Remove pan and turn on broiler. Carefully, mindful of the steam, remove the foil, and spread the mozzarella evenly over the meat.
Grilled Chicken Breast, boneless, skinless, 3 oz.
Sprinkle the parmesan on top and broil until bubbly and beginning to brown. Chicken Basil : Serves 4 This is an old family favorite. It can be refrigerated for three days, or even frozen for two weeks, after the baking, so it can be made ahead and quickly ready on a rushed night.
Sprinkle half the garlic powder and half the basil in the bottom of an oven proof dish or pan that will hold the thighs closely but not overlapping.
Juicy Slow Cooker Turkey Breast
Place in pan, and sprinkle the rest of the garlic and basil over them. Cover and seal the pan with foil. Remove from oven, turn on broiler, and lift foil. Dilute orange juice with the sherry and just enough water to come almost to the top level of the meat in the pan, and pour over or mix nectar with sherry.
Broil until thighs brown and the sauce thickens. Worcestershire sauce 1 tsp. Combine panko or crumbs and salt or lemon pepper and Coat chicken pieces, keeping as much of the marinade mixture on them as possible. Place meat in a lightly greased pan, sprinkle with paprika and parsley and bake at deg. Optionally serve with lemon wedges. Preheat oven to deg. When filling the chicken be sure the smooth skin side is to the outside. Put the filling in the center and, folding the outside edges in to contain it, if necessary, roll the meat over the stuffing, secure with a toothpick and coat with the butter, then dredge in the breadcrumbs.
Quality traits of meat along with its nutritional composition become dependent upon animal breed type, feeding source grains, pasture and grass , genetics of animal and post mortem techniques. This chapter will mainly focus on the variant aspects of nutritional constituents of meat including proteins and essential amino acids, fats and fatty acid profile, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals along with their health benefits to human health.
Meat Science and Nutrition. Ingestion of fresh, healthy and wholesome food materials play a crucial role in maintaining the health status of human beings. The term balanced diet has gained immense popularity globally owing to the increasing awareness regarding the maintenance of health status among the masses. Balanced diet ensures the intake of all the essential nutrients, which are required by the human body to perform the daily life functions [ 1 ].
In this scenario, awareness of nutritional composition of the food stuffs has become quite significant in having a balanced meal, which in-turn ensures the health status of individuals. Nutritional composition refers to the comprehensive frame of information regarding vital nutritional components of food items and offers energy values.
The nutrients are the elements that provide nourishment essential for the maintenance of life and for growth, which includes both the macro- and micro-nutrient. Macro-nutrients are those that are required by the human body in large amounts and these include proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Micro-nutrients are those elements which are required by the body in small amount and comprising of vitamins, minerals and fiber [ 2 ]. All of these are being supplied by number of food stuffs including meat, cereal grains, milk, fruits and vegetables.
Among them meat holds a key spot which fulfills most of the protein requirements of the humans. Different types of meats are present including the beef, mutton, lamb, chicken and fish etc. Each and every type of meat is significant in its own value with little differences in its composition [ 3 ]. The detailed information regarding its nutritional composition is as follows;. Meat ranks among one of the most significant, nutritious and energy-rich natural food product, utilized by the humans to fulfill their regular body requirements.
It is considered quite important in maintaining a healthy and balanced diet, which is essential in accomplishing optimum human growth and development. Although, few epidemiological studies have also pointed a possible relationship between its consumption and the elevated risks of having cardiovascular diseases, various forms of cancers and metabolic disorders but still its role in the human species evolution, specifically in its brain and intellectual development cannot be ignored [ 4 ].
In accordance with European legislation, meat is defined as the edible portions, obtained from domestic animals including caprine, bovine, ovine and porcine, including the poultry meat, farmed and wild animals.
It is a rich source of high value proteins, variety of fats including omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, zinc, iron, selenium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, vitamin A, B-complex vitamins and folic acid. Its composition varies with reference to its breed, type of feed being ingested, climatic conditions and also on the meat cut, which imparts a considerable difference on its nutritional and sensorial properties [ 4 ]. From the nutritional point of view, meat is considered as a rich essential amino acids source whereas, mineral contents to a lesser extent.
Apart from it, essential fatty acids and vitamins also make a part of it. Organ meat like liver is quite an enriched source of Vitamin A, Vitamin B 1 and nicotinic acid. The research is still in progress for the better understanding of the probable differences among the nutritional value of different meat cuts, variant animal species and breeds. It is quite evident from the previous research that the meat having lesser connective tissues is likely to have low scores of digestion and absorption [ 5 ]. Moreover, the meat having more connective tissues are supposed to have less contents of essential amino acids, which make them less nutritious as compared to the meat piece having lesser connective tissues and results in more digestibility and nutritional value [ 3 ].
Following Table 1 shows the nutritional composition of different sort of meat products. Water is one of the important constituents of all food materials.
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The more the water content of any food material the lesser are the chances of its longer shelf life as micro-organisms have greater chance to grow on them that in turn, limit their lives. Apart from reduction in shelf life, its presence imparts a strong impact on the color, texture and flavor of muscle tissues of meat. Adipose tissues tissues on the abdominal part of the animal contain less moisture content, which leads to the fact that if the animal is fatter it will be having lower water content in its carcass and vice versa.
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Major portion of water contents in meat tissues exist in free- state within muscle fibers and smaller amount of it is present in the connective tissues. The water holding ability of meat could be altered by the disruptions of its muscle fibers, which resultantly aid in the enhancement of the shelf life of meat products. There are numerous methods involved in this regard containing chopping, grinding, salting, freezing, thawing, breakdown of connective tissues by enzymatic or chemical means, heating application and use of chemicals or organic additives altering the acidity pH of meat are the processes that can affect the final water contents of meaty products [ 8 ].
Its substantial quantities are present in blood in the form of glucose.
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The glycogen has an indirect impact on the meat color, texture, tenderness and water holding capacity of it. The conversion of stored glycogen to glucose; and from glucose to lactic acid is quite a complex process and all these modifications are governed by the action of hormones and enzymes [ 9 ].
- Nutritional Composition of Meat.
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During the early stage of aging, the lactic acid content of muscles increases, thus lowering the pH. The pH has a very strong influence on the muscle texture, tenderness, color and also on water-holding capacity. The normal pH of the muscle considers being around 5. If an animal suffers from severe stress or exercise just before the slaughter and have no chance to regain its normal glycogen levels, then a minute amount of glycogen will be there to convert into lactic acid causing an elevated pH i.
This type of meat results from exhaustion and then causes depletion of glycogen before slaughter. The main reason for the dark colored meat with high pH is owing to the higher water holding capacity. This causes the muscles to absorb more water, which makes them to absorb the incident light rather than to reflect it from the meat surface, thus causing the darker appearance of the meat.
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This DFD defect is quite disliked by the retailers and customers, affecting heavily on its sensorial and nutritional properties, so stress and rough handling of animals should be avoided just prior to slaughtering [ 10 ]. A quite speedy postmortem causes a drop in the muscle pH i. PSE affected muscle portion is recognized by low water-holding capacity, soft texture and pale yellow color. The softer muscle structure of PSE meat causes its lower water-holding capacity, which is then accountable for more reflectance of incident light, thus making the color of meat as pale yellow [ 11 ].
All the above mentioned conditions of DFD and PSE relates to the carbohydrate contents of the meat, which has considerable effect on nutritional value of meat.